30 Oct You Deserve a Vacation
By Kati Terray
Summer might be over, but you can still treat yourself to a vacation! Did you know the way you breathe has the power to change your physical, mental and emotional state? While you may not be able to actually transport yourself to a tropical paradise, you can transform yourself from stressed and spread too thin to rested and relaxed by tuning into the magic of your own respiratory diaphragm.
The respiratory diaphragm is your primary breathing muscle. Shaped like an umbrella, the diaphragm separates the heart and lungs from the rest of the organs below it, originating on the inner surface of the lower six ribs, inner part of the xiphoid process and upper two or three lumbar vertebrae. The central tendon of the diaphragm is attached to the connective tissue that surrounds the lungs. On inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and pulls the central tendon down, drawing oxygen-rich air into the lungs. On exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and releases the pull on the central tendon, allowing the lungs to deflate, pushing carbon-dioxide rich air out. This is what happens when we are breathing diaphragmatically, also known as belly breathing or abdominal breathing.
But we can’t always breath diaphragmatically during certain types of physical activity. There are many times we need to maintain a braced core to safely perform an exercise, holding the abdominal muscles in tension to stabilize the spine. This thoracic breathing (also known as chest breathing) restricts the downward movement of the diaphragm. Unfortunately most of us don’t find ourselves breathing shallow into the chest just when we are bracing our core for a deadlift. Being stressed out, slouching or having other postural problems are also times when the diaphragm gets bypassed in favor of more shallow breathing.
Here’s a really cool thing about the respiratory diaphragm: It is controlled by both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. This means that while the diaphragm will keep functioning on its own so that we keep breathing, we can also exert control over it. The somatic nervous system innervates our skeletal muscles, and we have the ability to control how we contract and relax these muscles. The autonomic nervous system controls our internal organs and functions without our control. The two main branches of the autonomic nervous system are:
• Sympathetic, aka “Fight or Flight” – When the sympathetic nervous system is switched on, the heart rate is accelerated. Adrenaline dumps into the blood stream to increase reaction time, breathing is shallow and rapid, cortisol levels become higher and signal glucose to be released into the bloodstream to give you extra energy.
• Parasympathetic, aka “Rest, Digest and Repair” – When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated, the heart rate slows, digestion is stimulated, and growth hormone is released to repair the body’s tissues.
The reality is that we all spend way more time in a state of sympathetic dominance. It’s the world we live in. We work high-stress jobs, we commute in crazy traffic, we wear a lot of hats and burn the candle at both ends. Not to mention the things we do in our down time aren’t all that down-regulating – watching TV (I love police procedural shows – not very relaxing!) scrolling through social media, or reading the latest news headlines. Even some of the things that are good for us, like exercise, take us into a sympathetic state.
Because of this, it’s imperative that we do something to deliberately activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The good news is, giving yourself some rest, digest and repair time is simple, and you already have everything you need to take yourself on a parasympathetic vacation!
This is where things get magical. As I already mentioned, the diaphragm is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, so it keeps moving to keep you breathing without you having to think about it. But it is also controlled by the somatic nervous system, which allows us to exert some control over how we relax and contract the diaphragm.
Abdominal breathing (belly breathing or diaphragmatic breathing) is the most calming way to breathe and affect a change on the nervous system. Lay on your back with your knees bent and feet on the floor, close your eyes and get comfortable. Place your hands on your belly, and become aware of the belly rising as you inhale, and falling as you exhale. This might take some practice, but see if you can do it without extra effort like “pushing” the belly out as you breathe. Just see if you can become a witness to your own breath, and let your body take over. As you get more familiar with this technique, see if you can let your awareness of the breath expand to not just the front of you, but with your waistline and low back drawing in and out as well.
Diaphragmatic breathing stimulates a major parasympathetic nerve called the Vagus Nerve. When the Vagus is stimulated, it acts as the body’s “off” switch, slowing down heart rate, respiration rate and metabolic function. So while we can’t directly control our autonomic nervous system, we can use the breath to help us shift from a sympathetic into a parasympathetic state.
I always find it easier to do breath work and conscious relaxation when my body is prepared to help my breath and my mind relax. If you’ve ever taken a yoga class, you know how much easier it feels to come into savasana at the end of class than it would at the beginning. You don’t necessarily need a full hour training session or yoga class, but you will probably find you can breathe and relax better following a little bit of mobility practice. Here’s a quick ProBar Mobility practice that will set you up perfectly for some relaxed breathing:
- Assisted Squat (no twist and pull) – 10 reps performed slowly, prying hips at the bottom, breathing deep abdominal breaths
- Shoulder 360 – 10 reps performed slowly, increasing range of motion each time
- Staggered Stance 3-Point Hinge – 5 reps on each side to start; if one side feels tighter, perform 5 more reps on that side
- Open Half-Kneeling Windmill – 5 reps on each side to start; if one side feels tighter, perform 5 more reps on that side
- Half-Kneeling Hip Flexor Stretch – 5 reps on each side to start; if one side feels tighter, perform 5 more reps on that side
- Straddle Stretch – 5 reps slowly, increasing range of motion gradually
- Finish with 5 minutes of deep belly breathing
The more you practice diaphragmatic breathing, the more you will be able to access it even when you aren’t able to warm up your body and lay down on the ground. Over time, you will find you can tap into this type of breathing even during stressful situations, when you really need it most. You can think of your diaphragm as a magic portal ready to transport you to a mini-vacation any time you give yourself the gift of a few minutes to slow down—and breathe!